It is an important sea port, regional centre, and the hub of the North Sea oil industry. Although remote by UK standards, this is no backwater; Aberdeen is a prosperous and cosmopolitan city partly due to North Sea oil and is characterised by its grand and ornate architecture.
Most buildings are constructed out of granite quarried in and around the city, and as a result, Aberdeen is often referred to as The Granite City.
It is also known for its many outstanding parks, gardens and floral displays throughout the city, as well as its long, sandy beach. Aberdeen also boasts the title of Oil Capital of Europe and has been voted in several polls as the happiest place in Britain, with a poll citing access to large areas of greenery and community spirit.
It has won the Britain in Bloom competition 10 times. Aberdeen does not attract as many tourists as other Scottish destinations such as Edinburgh or St Andrewsand can feel more authentic. It is a great place to stop for a couple of days on a tour of Scotland, and especially good as a base for exploring the wider region to take advantage of the castles, golf, whisky distilleries, scenery, mountains including skiing and snowboardingcoast and other attractions in Aberdeenshire and Royal Deeside.
Alternatively, Aberdeen's remoteness yet comforts and cosmopolitan nature makes it an interesting destination for a short city break if you really want to get away from the stress.
Aberdeen is a city ofpeople - smaller than Glasgow and Edinburghbut larger than other Scottish cities. By UK and even Scottish standards it is remote and often the subject of "far away" jokes the nearest city is much smaller Dundee 70 miles south.
Despite this, Aberdeen is surprisingly easy to reach and is a modern and prosperous city. British visitors are often surprised to find a such a vibrant city so far north. Partly due to oil wealth and its status as the only large regional centre, it has the facilities of a much larger city.
Together, all this gives Aberdeen an air of self-sufficiency found in few places in Britain today. Immigration due to the oil industry and the universities gives the city a cosmopolitan air that often surprises visitors, and when out and about in the city languages are heard from all over the world. Aberdeen has a seemingly-random medieval layout common for cities in Britain.
At the north-east end is the main square - the Castlegate - while leading off Union Street are important roads such as east to west Broad Street, Shiprow, Market Street, St.
Nicholas Square, and Union Terrace. Running parallel to Union Street are Guild Street where the railway and bus stations are located and Upperkirkgate, which leads into Schoolhill.
East of the Castlegate, roads lead to the beach and the sea, while at the other end of Union Street, roads lead to the West End where many millionnaires live. Unusually, the harbour is in the city centre and is rapidly reached from the Shiprow, Market Street, Guild Street and Marischal Street.
The River Dee does not flow through the city centre but a little to the south. The River Don flows through the north of the city, about two miles 3. While the location has been inhabited for over years, a city did not develop until the middle-ages. The modern city was formed by two settlements which grew together - Old Aberdeen close to the mouth of the River Don home to the University sinceand New Aberdeen, about two miles south where a stream, the Denburn, met the River Dee the Denburn is long built-over by a road and railway but its route is crossed by bridge on Union Street.
Much of the city's prosperity came from the sea and its harbour - until the midth century fishing and mercantile trading were mainstays of the economy, along with granite quarrying and carving, local agriculture and manufacturing e.
Then, these industries declined while Aberdeen's location made it perfect as the main base for North Sea oil. Today, most people work for one of the many oil-related companies or know someone who does, and these jobs are well-paid.Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Things to Do in Aberdeen Aberdeen Tours. When are you traveling? Clear Dates. View map. Browse by Category. Specialty Museums.
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By Hotel Type. Aberdeen Business Hotels.It is Scotland 's third most populous cityone of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom 's 39th most populous built-up areawith an official population estimate offor the city of Aberdeen  andfor the local council area.
During the midth to midth centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granitewhich can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters. Aberdeen received Royal burgh status from David I of Scotland — transforming the city economically.
The city has two universities, the University of Aberdeenfounded inand Robert Gordon Universitywhich was awarded university status inmaking Aberdeen the educational centre of north-east Scotland.
The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world  and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland. Aberdeen used to host the Aberdeen International Youth Festivala major international event which attracted up to of the most talented young performing arts companies but the council ended funding in and the festival was wound up in InMercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.
The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8, years. Inthe Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocketwhose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians. During the Wars of Scottish IndependenceAberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it infollowed executing the English garrison.
The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of to the city was plundered by both sides. Init was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen  and two years later it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in and the Lunatic Asylum in The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George StreetKing Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century.
The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in during the Post-Napoleonic depressionan economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars ; but the city's prosperity later recovered.
The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, and the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in and an enhanced water supply appeared in when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent.
One of the most devastating attacks was on Wednesday 21 April when 29 Luftwaffe Dornier s flying from StavangerNorway attacked the city between the hours of and .
A total of 98 civilians and 27 servicemen were killed, along with 9, houses damaged, after a mixture of Incendiary, High Explosive and Cluster bombs were dropped on the city in one night. It was also the last German raid on a Scottish city during the war.Aberdeen is a busy seaport, the British centre of the North Sea oil industry, and the commercial capital of northeastern Scotland.
Today its economy is focused on the oil industry, though it has grown more diversified to include electronics design and renewable energy resources. Aberdeen city constitutes an independent council area that covers the burgh of Aberdeen and the surrounding countryside. Most of the city, including the historic centres of Old Aberdeen and New Aberdeen, lies in the historic county of Aberdeenshirebut the city also includes a small area in the south that belongs to the historic county of Kincardineshire.
Aberdeen is the historic county town seat of Aberdeenshire. Aberdeen originated as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen, the cathedral and university settlement on the Don, and New Aberdeen, the neighbouring trading and fishing village on the Dee.
Old Aberdeen, reputedly founded in by St. Machar, a disciple of the Celtic missionary St. Columbabecame the seat of the bishopric of Aberdeen and was virtually destroyed by the English in The present St.
Remnants of this ecclesiastical power survived untilwhen the episcopal burgh was incorporated with New Aberdeen to form the present city.
The oldest surviving charter confers several trade privileges on the burgesses of Aberdeen. Some of the oldest streets, from the 13th and 14th centuries, survive near the Castlegate, the historic marketplace of New Aberdeen and commercial heart of the modern city.
The Castlegate still contains an old Market City Cross The parish church of St. Nicholas Union Street is divided into two parts: the West Church built in by James Gibbs is separated from the East Church built in by Archibald Simpson by the original 13th-century transept and 19th-century steeple.
Aberdeen is an important hub for transport by road, rail, sea, and air.Pycharm install package from github
The original harbour, the Dee estuary, has been continually improved. Today Aberdeen Harbour is the main commercial port of northeast Scotland. The North Sea oil boom of the late 20th century benefited Aberdeen more than any other city of Scotland, bringing more than new companies and thousands of new foreign residents and financing the construction of housing, offices, and schools.
Some acres hectares of industrial land were allocated to attract industry associated with oil technology. However, Aberdeen and the British North Sea oil industry were hit hard by the precipitous decline in world oil prices beginning inand there were significant reductions in employment in the region. Although production costs were reduced and production increased in the wake of the market decline, the long-term future of the industry had become precarious.
Area 71 square miles square km. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Aberdeen Scotland, United Kingdom. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. River Deeriver in Aberdeen shire, Scotland, rising at an elevation above 4, feet 1, metres in the Cairngorm Mountains and flowing for about 90 miles km east to the North Sea at Aberdeen.
Its headwaters flow turbulently in highland glens set amid grouse moorland. The main valley widens below…. River Donriver in Aberdeen shire, northeastern Scotland, rising in the Grampian Mountains, flowing generally eastward parallel to and north of the River Dee, and emptying into the North Sea at Aberdeen after a course of 82 miles km.
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