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Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. You can change its settings to select a default operating system, set a background image, and choose how long GRUB counts down before automatically booting the default OS. For example, on Ubuntu, there are scripts here that configure the default theme. For an easy-to-use terminal-based editor — Nano — use the following command. You can use any text editor you like, of course — including the standard vi text editor.

As with any other configuration file, you need to edit the options to your desired state and then change the file. If it does, edit the existing line instead of adding a duplicate one. You can also specify a label in quotes. This option specifies GRUB will be hidden and it will automatically boot to the default OS after 0 seconds —immediately, in other words. You can still access the menu by holding Shift as your computer boots. GRUB will automatically bot the default operating system after a period of time, usually ten seconds.

During that time, you can choose another OS or leave it be to automatically boot. The image file must meet various specifications. You could also use a TGA image file. Your changes will become part of the grub. The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere. Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, comics, trivia, reviews, and more. Windows Mac iPhone Android. Smarthome Office Security Linux.

The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. Skip to content. How-To Geek is where you turn when you want experts to explain technology. Since we launched inour articles have been read more than 1 billion times. Want to know more?GRUB or Grand Unified Bootloader is a bootloader package developed to allow users to select from two or more operating systems installed on a single disk.

If anything goes wrong, you can easily fix, edit and repair the GRUB boot menu using commands. GRUB is popular among people who use dual boot setups. GRUB is still there but the Windows bootloader takes preference over it, thus booting right into Windows.

Repairing GRUB can be done in two ways. The graphical way is also harmless, meaning you can do it wrong and your data will still be very safe, waiting for you to try again and do it right. The only con is that it requires that you have a bootable Ubuntu disk or USB and a working internet connection. You can quite easily change how the GRUB bootloader menu looks to something more pleasing to the eye.

You can also change the boot order, so it would boot into your OS of choice by default unless you choose otherwise at the time of boot. To install it, just execute the following commands in a Terminal window. Usually, the list starts with Windows at the bottom.

To move any listing up or down, select it and just click on the arrow buttons on the top. There are some other settings too as you can see above. It lets you manually select the background image or color, font, and highlight color as well as the font size.

You can also install pre-built themes from the internet. For more info, Please read our privacy policy before submitting your comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.

Learn how your comment data is processed. Contents hide. Related Posts.GRUB is the reference implementation of the Free Software Foundation 's Multiboot Specificationwhich provides a user the choice to boot one of multiple operating systems installed on a computer or select a specific kernel configuration available on a particular operating system's partitions.

It is predominantly used for Unix-like systems. When a computer is turned on, BIOS finds the configured primary bootable device usually the computer's hard disk and loads and executes the initial bootstrap program from the master boot record MBR. The MBR is the first sector of the hard disk, with zero as its offset sectors counting starts at zero. Although such a small space can be sufficient for very simple boot loaders, [7] it is not big enough to contain a boot loader supporting complex and multiple file systemsmenu-driven selection of boot choices, etc.

Boot loaders with bigger footprints are thus split into pieces, where the smallest piece fits into and resides within the MBR, while larger piece s are stored in other locations for example, into empty sectors between the MBR and the first partition and invoked by the boot loader's MBR code.

Operating system kernel images are in most cases files residing on appropriate file systems, but the concept of a file system is unknown to the BIOS. Thus, in BIOS-based systems, the duty of a boot loader is to access the content of those files, so it can be loaded into the RAM and executed. One possible approach for boot loaders to load kernel images is by directly accessing hard disk sectors without understanding the underlying file system. Such maps need to be updated each time a kernel image changes its physical location on disk, due to installing new kernel images, file system defragmentation etc.

Also, in case of the maps changing their physical location, their locations need to be updated within the boot loader's MBR code, so the sectors indirection mechanism continues to work. This is not only cumbersome, but it also leaves the system in need of manual repairs in case something goes wrong during system updates.

How to Edit & Repair GRUB Boot Menu Using Commands

Another approach is to make a boot loader aware of the underlying file systems, so kernel images are configured and accessed using their actual file paths. That requires a boot loader to contain a driver for each of the supported file systems, so they can be understood and accessed by the boot loader itself.

This approach eliminates the need for hardcoded locations of hard disk sectors and existence of map files, and does not require MBR updates after the kernel images are added or moved around. Configuration of a boot loader is stored in a regular file, which is also accessed in a file system-aware way to obtain boot configurations before the actual booting of any kernel images. As a result, the possibility for things to go wrong during various system updates is significantly reduced.

As a downside, such boot loaders have increased internal complexity and even bigger footprints. The boot loader itself is split into multiple stagesallowing for itself to fit within the MBR boot scheme. GRUB 2 was written from scratch and intended to replace its predecessor, and is now used by a majority of Linux distributions.

GRUB 0. Stage 1 can load stage 2 directly, but it is normally set up to load the stage 1. In case this space is not available unusual partition table, special disk drivers, GPT or LVM disk the install of stage 1.

The stage 1. Stage 2 will then load the default configuration file and any other modules needed. Grub presents a menu where the user can choose from operating systems OS found by grub-install.

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Grub can be configured to automatically load a specified OS after a user-defined timeout. Once boot options have been selected, GRUB loads the selected kernel into memory and passes control to the kernel. Alternatively, GRUB can pass control of the boot process to another boot loader, using chain loading. This is the method used to load operating systems that do not support the Multiboot Specification or are not supported directly by GRUB. In latethe exploit of pressing backspace 28 times to bypass the login password was found and quickly fixed.

Some notable ones, which have not been merged into GRUB mainline:. The setup tools in use by various distributions often include modules to set up GRUB. The development of StartUp-Manager stopped on 6 May after the lead developer cited personal reasons for not actively developing the program.

Grub2Win is a Windows open-source software package.

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The setup program installs GNU Grub version 2. The strength of Grub is the wide range of supported platforms, file-systems, and operating systems, making it the default choice for distributions and embedded systems.

However, there are boot-managers targeted at the end user that gives more friendly user experience, graphical OS selector and simpler configuration:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see grub disambiguation.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Welcome to Grubs

Ask Ubuntu is a question and answer site for Ubuntu users and developers. It only takes a minute to sign up. I can no longer boot Ubuntu following a corruption problem initially reported here How do I solve the "invalid arch dependent elf magic" error message. If you get initramfs rescue mode enter your password, then startx. You should now have a desktop. Use gparted to check your file system, if it reports an error, then you need to boot from a LiveCD or other media to fix it DO NOT attempt to repair a mounted partition.

The following three commands fix many grub boot problems. They run quick so just do all three instead of trying to find which one you need. The most probable cause to that issue is installing the OS to a disk, grub to a different disk that is not removable. Then removing the OS disk. Restart your system. Press f2 key while loading.

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Goto boot option. Enter f10 key It may solve your problem. If not enter this in grub rescue mode Ubuntu Community Ask!

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Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Asked 2 years, 9 months ago. Active 1 year, 11 months ago. Viewed 83k times. For the first word, TAB lists possible command completions. Anywhere else TAB lists possible device or file completions. Mons Mons 1 1 gold badge 3 3 silver badges 7 7 bronze badges. Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.And, it is truly the greatest loader for booting Linux and practically any other OS—open source or otherwise—you may have scattered on your platters.

GRUB is independent of any particular operating system and may be thought of as a tiny, function-specific OS. The purpose of the GRUB kernel is to recognize filesystems and load boot images, and it provides both menu-driven and command-line interfaces to perform these functions. The command-line interface in particular is quite flexible and powerful, with command history and completion features familiar to users of the bash shell.

Even if you stick with LILO as your system's primary boot loader, it's smart to keep a GRUB boot floppy handy as the best and fastest way to get your system back if you otherwise cream your master boot record MBR.

grub boot

If you have done any number of multiboot installations, you know exactly what I'm talking about. Let's get started! Installation of GRUB is a two-step process. The second step is to install and configure GRUB as the boot loader for your system.

grub boot

The first step is the usual: download the source archive, untar it, configure and make install. Assuming you have found a source mirror see www.

For the second step of installation, we will first build and work with a GRUB boot floppy. This way we can use GRUB to learn about its features while testing various configurations for our particular system. Even if you decide not to install GRUB on your hard disk right away, no harm done: you will now have your own GRUB boot floppy available to rescue systems with trashed boot loaders.

That way, we will always be able to get to its menu configuration file if we need to. Scrounge around in your junk drawer for some unused floppy a new one would be even betterand give it a fresh format and FAT filesystem:. We will discuss the features of this shell in more detail a little further on. For now, enter the following series of commands at the grub prompt:.

Figure 1. GRUB in command-line mode. And that's it! This sequence of commands completes the installation of GRUB on the floppy disk. It is now bootable and will allow us to boot any other OS on our system. To see how GRUB may be used to boot a multitude of different operating systems, consider this example setup:.

Note that although GRUB and Linux are capable of dealing with installations in extended partitions, here we show a preference for using primary partitions whenever possible.

Filesystems in primary partitions are often mountable by other operating systems, whereas cross-OS mounting filesystems in extended partitions is often not supported.

This system has two hard disks with six different operating systems using seven partitions.One of the most frightening things about Linux is the horrible word bootloader. The primary reason for this is the fact that most new Linux users have only ever used Windows operating systems. In the Windows world, they have never bothered with bootloaders. For them, the issue of a system booting was a transparent one.

At most, they would use Windows Recovery Console to fix problems for them. Thus, they have been spared the need to learn about the single most important piece of software on a computer - the little program that makes it all work. This article is supposed to provide you with basic understanding of the GRUB bootloader. If you have read my other Linux articles, you are familiar with partitioning and Linux notation, as well as with the command line.

The next logical step is to enhance this knowledge by taking one step further. Understanding how GRUB works and what boot entries in the boot menu mean will help you understand how the operating systems work, how to fix, recover or modify the GRUB menu to suit your needs, and how to setup different work environments with several operating systems.

In the past, we have relied on the installation setups to make the hard work for us. In fact, setting up GRUB, while frightening, is a quite simple and fully reversible procedure.

So if you are ready, read on. But first of all, a foreword of wisdom. This article is a compilation of sources and examples that will help you learn about GRUB.

Of course, it's all out there somewhere, on the Internet. However, new Linux users will probably find the notion of spending hours searching for relevant pieces of information especially if their PC won't boot somewhat frustrating. The goal of this guide is to help provide simple and quick solutions to most common problems regarding multi-boot setups and installation of Linux operating systems.

Everything is a file. Even hard disks and partitions are treated as files. There is no magic. Now that we have established this, we can move on to the more technical parts of grubbing. GNU GRUB is a bootloader can also be spelled boot loader capable of loading a variety of free and proprietary operating systems. GRUB is dynamically configurable. This means that the user can make changes during the boot time, which include altering existing boot entries, adding new, custom entries, selecting different kernels, or modifying initrd.

It can also decompress operating system images before booting them. We'll concentrate on hard disks, for the sake of simplicity.GRUB GRand Unified Bootloader is a boot loader package developed to support multiple operating systems and allow the user to select among them during boot -up.

The original package, sometimes known as GRUB Legacy, is still available for download but no longer being developed. Please check the box if you want to proceed. Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

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